Main Article Content
Voting is arguably the most important as well as elementary right in democracy that has existed for the past hundreds of years; it has taken place in the context of a large- and small-scale community. The process transitioned from paper ballots to electronic voting machines (EVM) in the late 20th century, but even with all the advancement, transparency in the election process remained the same. Blockchain technology came in existence in 2008 with the introduction of Bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto, and in the last decade we saw enormous growth in development and execution of this technology in various fields e-voting is one of them, blockchain-based e-voting system has potential to improve the election process if utilized to its potential. Blockchain can eliminate the need to print ballot paper as it is secure, immutable and convenient to voters and can make elections more transparent.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
M. Ibrahim, K. Ravindran, H. Lee, O. Farooqui and Q. H. Mahmoud, "ElectionBlock: An Electronic Voting System using Blockchain and Fingerprint Authentication," 2021 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2021, pp. 123-129, doi: 10.1109/ICSA-C52384.2021.00033.
A. M. Al-madani, A. T. Gaikwad, V. Mahale and Z. A. T. Ahmed, "Decentralized E-voting system based on Smart Contract by using Blockchain Technology," 2020 International Conference on Smart Innovations in Design, Environment, Management, Planning and Computing (ICSIDEMPC), 2020, pp. 176-180, doi: 10.1109/ICSIDEMPC49020.2020.9299581.
G. Rathee, R. Iqbal, O. Waqar and A. K. Bashir, "On the Design and Implementation of a Blockchain Enabled E-Voting Application Within IoT-Oriented Smart Cities," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 34165-34176, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3061411.
D. Suyitno, B. R. Aladhirus and R. W. Wardhani, "Design and Implementation of Smart Card based Secure Key Storage The Blockchain E-voting Application," 2020 1st International Conference on Information Technology, Advanced Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (ICITAMEE), 2020, pp. 259-264, doi: 10.1109/ICITAMEE50454.2020.9398390.
M. A. Cheema, N. Ashraf, A. Aftab, H. K. Qureshi, M. Kazim and A. T. Azar, "Machine Learning with Blockchain for Secure E-voting System," 2020 First International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (SMARTTECH), 2020, pp. 177-182, doi: 10.1109/SMART-TECH49988.2020.00050.
E. Febriyanto, Triyono, N. Rahayu, K. Pangaribuan and P. A. Sunarya, "Using Blockchain Data Security Management for E-Voting Systems," 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM), 2020, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/CITSM50537.2020.9268847.
M. Soud, S. Helgason, G. Hjálmtýsson and M. Hamdaqa, "TrustVote: On Elections We Trust with Distributed Ledgers and Smart Contracts," 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research & Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS), 2020, pp. 176-183, doi: 10.1109/BRAINS49436.2020.9223306.
L. V. -C. -. Thuy, K. Cao-Minh, C. Dang-Le-Bao and T. A. Nguyen, "Votereum: An Ethereum-Based E-Voting System," 2019 IEEE-RIVF International Conference on Computing and Communication Technologies (RIVF), 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/RIVF.2019.8713661.
A. Khandelwal, "Blockchain implimentation on E-voting System," 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS), 2019, pp. 385-388, doi: 10.1109/ISS1.2019.8907951.
A. Pandey, M. Bhasi and K. Chandrasekaran, "VoteChain: A Blockchain Based E-Voting System," 2019 Global Conference for Advancement in Technology (GCAT), 2019, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/GCAT47503.2019.8978295.
B. A. Tama, B. J. Kweka, Y. Park and K. -H. Rhee, "A critical review of blockchain and its current applications," 2017 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (ICECOS), 2017, pp. 109-113, doi: 10.1109/ICECOS.2017.8167115.
A. A. Monrat, O. Schelén and K. Andersson, "A Survey of Blockchain From the Perspectives of Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 117134-117151, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2936094.
M. N. M. Bhutta et al., "A Survey on Blockchain Technology: Evolution, Architecture and Security," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 61048-61073, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3072849.
T. M. Roopak and R. Sumathi, "Electronic Voting based on Virtual ID of Aadhar using Blockchain Technology," 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA), 2020, pp. 71-75, doi: 10.1109/ICIMIA48430.2020.9074942.
S. T. Alvi, M. N. Uddin and L. Islam, "Digital Voting: A Blockchain-based E-Voting System using Biohash and Smart Contract," 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), 2020, pp. 228-233, doi: 10.1109/ICSSIT48917.2020.9214250.
E. Bellini, P. Ceravolo and E. Damiani, "Blockchain-Based E-Vote-as-a-Service," 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), 2019, pp. 484-486, doi: 10.1109/CLOUD.2019.00085.
S. Zhang and J.-H. Lee, “Analysis of the main consensus protocols of blockchain,” ICT Express, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2020.
A. Alam, S. M. Zia Ur Rashid, M. Abdus Salam and A. Islam, "Towards Blockchain-Based E-voting System," 2018 International Conference on Innovations in Science, Engineering and Technology (ICISET), 2018, pp. 351-354, doi: 10.1109/ICISET.2018.8745613.
M. Castro and B. Liskov, “Practical byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery,” ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 398-461, 2002.
F. Stacey. “THE BLOCKCHAIN BRIEF.” The Journal of Government Financial Management, Association of Government Accountants, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 24-29, Dec. 2018
H. Tian, L. Fu, and J. He, “A Simpler Bitcoin Voting Protocol,” Information Security and Cryptology Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 81-98, Jan. 2018.
R. A. Canessane, N. Srinivasan, A. Beuria, A. Singh, and B. M. Kumar, “Decentralised Applications Using Ethereum Blockchain,” 5th Int. Conf. Sci. Technol. Eng. Math. ICONSTEM 2019, pp. 75–79, Mar. 2019, doi: 10.1109/ICONSTEM.2019.8918887.
“South Korea Uses Blockchain Technology for Elections,” KryptoMoney, https://kryptomoney.com/south-korea-usesblockchaintechnology-for-elections, 2017.
M. N. Uddin, S. Ahmmed, I. A. Riton and L. Islam, "An Blockchain-based E-voting System Applying Time Lock Encryption," 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Technologies (CONIT), 2021, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/CONIT51480.2021.9498566.
B. Shahzad and J. Crowcroft, "Trustworthy Electronic Voting Using Adjusted Blockchain Technology," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 24477-24488, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2895670
A. Singh and K. Chatterjee, "SecEVS : Secure Electronic Voting System Using Blockchain Technology," 2018 International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON), 2018, pp. 863-867, doi: 10.1109/GUCON.2018.8675008.
D. Khoury, E. F. Kfoury, A. Kassem and H. Harb, "Decentralized Voting Platform Based on Ethereum Blockchain," 2018 IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET), 2018, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/IMCET.2018.8603050.
K. Patidar and S. Jain, "Decentralized E-Voting Portal Using Blockchain," 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2019, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ICCCNT45670.2019.8944820.
K. Li, H. Li, H. Hou, K. Li and Y. Chen, "Proof of Vote: A High-Performance Consensus Protocol Based on Vote Mechanism & Consortium Blockchain," 2017 IEEE 19th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 15th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 3rd International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS), 2017, pp. 466-473, doi: 10.1109/HPCC-SmartCity-DSS.2017.61.